15 November 2012

HARYANA

The word Hariana first appeared in Sanskrit texts, in 1328. Haryana was known as Abhirayana, Ahirayana and Hirayana in old times. Haryana has sites of Indus Valley Civilization at Banawali (in Fatehabad) and Rakhi Garhi (in Hisar). The ancient extinct river of Saraswati, once had its course through regions of present day Haryana. The Indian epic Mahabharata's historic battle, known as Kurukshetra War, was fought at Kurukshetra. Haryana was a part of various empires and dynasties, such as Nanda Empire (424 BC - 321 BC), Indo-Greek Kingdoms (180 BC - 10 AD), Indo-Parthians (20 BC), Indo-Scythians Kingdom (200 BC - 400 AD), Maurya Empire (3rd century BC), Kushan Empire (1 AD), Indo-Sassanid Empire (230 AD), Gupta Empire (4th century AD), Harshavardhan Empire (its capital was Thanesar, in Kurukshetra district, 606 AD- 647 AD), Dharmapala Dynasty (770 AD - 810 AD), Devpala Dynasty (810 AD - 850 AD), Shahi Kingdom (1020 AD), Delhi Sultanate (1206 - 1526), Mughal Empire (1526 - 1857), Maratha Empire (1674 - 1820), Durrani Empire (1747 - 1842) and finally the British Empire. Haryana was a part of the Delhi Province during Mughal era. The present districts of Haryana, were made part of British Punjab in different years. Umballa (Ambala) was made a British cantonment in 1843, and was made a district in 1847. Karnal was made a British cantonment in 1811. In 1803, Gurgaon was made a British part after the Anglo-Maratha Wars. Rohtak was a huge division consisting of present day Rohtak, Hissar, Bhiwani, Jhajjar, Bahadurgarh, Panipat, Sonipat etc. All these areas were carved out to form the respective districts between 19th to 20th centuries. Finally in 1849, these areas were put under the Delhi division of British Punjab Province, which the British had captured in the same year. Apart from the British areas, the Delhi Division (Haryana) also had two princely states, namely Jind (includes present day districts of Jind and Mahendragarh) and Pataudi (in Gurgaon district). After independence of India and partition in 1947, West Punjab went to Pakistan, and the remaining eastern part came to India. Jind, along with other Punjabi princely states, merged to form Patiala & East Punjab States Union (PEPSU) in 1948. PEPSU was made a state in 1950, and the remaining portions of east Punjab was merged under the name of East Punjab. In 1956, PEPSU was merged with East Punjab to form the state of Punjab, which consisted of present day Punjab, Haryana and parts of Himachal Pradesh. The map was finally changed in 1966, when Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh were created out of the Punjab state, on the basis of linguistic lines. The capital of Haryana, Chandigarh, was the first planned city of India, whose planning was started in 1949 by American architect Albert Mayer. The work, however, went to the French architect Le Corbusier, who gave the city its completion. In 1966, due to its strategic location, Chandigarh was made the capital of both Punjab and Haryana, and also was made a Union Territory.

In British Punjab, when Haryana was under Delhi Division, the map was quite different from what it is now. Many of the present day cities were bifurcated from previously existing districts. The former districts and the districts formed from them, are mention below

Former    Present carved out districts
Hissar      Hisar, Bhiwani, Fatehabad, Mahendragarh, Sirsa
Rohtak     Rohtak, Jhajjar
Gurgaon  Gurgaon, Mewat, Palwal, Rewari
Delhi        Delhi (NCT), Faridabad, Sonipat
Karnal      Karnal, Kaithal, Kurukshetra, Panipat
Ambala    Ambala, Panchkula, Yamuna Nagar


Haryana has large number of historical sites. Some of them are mentioned below:


Barsi Gate, Hisar
built in 1304 by Alauddin Khilji
Church Tower, Karnal
built in 1800s by the British
The main haveli of the Kalsia rulers in Chhachrauli, Harayana
Chhachhrauli Fort, Yamuna Nagar
built in 18th century
Chatta Rai Mukund Das, Narnaul (in Mahendragarh)
built between 1628 to 1658
Chor Gumbaz, Narnaul
built in 1350s
Feroze Shah Palace, Hisar
built in 1354
Gujari Mahal, Hisar
built between 1351 to 1388
Ibrahim Lodhi's Tomb, Panipat
built after the Battle of Panipat, 1526
Jal Mahal, Narnaul
built between 1556 to 1605
Raja Harsh ka Tila, Thanesar (in Kurukshetra)
built and developed between 1st century AD to Mughal Era
Shah Ibrahim's Tomb, Narnaul
built between 1538 to 1546
Shah Quli Khan Tomb, Narnaul
built by Shah Quli Khan between 1574 to 1575
Sheikh Chehli Mausoleum, Thanesar
built between 1540 to 1545 by Sher Shah Suri
Star Monument, Bhiwani
built in 2001
Rewari Town Hall
built between 1810 to 1815
Delhi Gate, Rewari
built during British period
Sheikhpura Kothi, Hisar
now converted into hotel, was built in 1818
Government Boys Senior Secondary School, Rewari
one of the oldest schools of Haryana, built in 1890
Jyotisar, Kurukshetra
it is said that the banyan tree is the offshoot of the
same tree, under which Lord Krishna had delivered
the sermon of Bhagvad Gita to Arjuna, during the
Kurukshetra War of Mahabharata
Jahaj Kothi, Hisar
built in 18th century
St. Thomas Church, Hisar
built in 1860
First Battle of Panipat 1526
fought between the Mughals and Lodi Empire.
The result of the battle, was the annexation of
Delhi Sultanate in the Mughal Empire, thus
giving rise to the empire in the subcontinent
Second Battle of Panipat 1556
fought between Akbar and Samrat Hemchandra
Vikramaditya (Hemu). Akbar was victorious in this battle
Third Battle of Panipat 1761
fought between the Marathas and the combined
team of Durrani Empire, Nawabs of Oudh and Rohillas.
The battle resulted in loss of Delhi and Punjab by the Marathas
to the Durrani. Soon after this, Durrani Empire appointed
Mughal Emperor as the head of the two states, and thus
the Mughals had their firm place in Indian subcontinent
Battle of Tarain 1191, Tarain (Taraori, near Thanesar)
fought between Muhammad Ghori and Prithviraj Chauhan.
In the first battle, Muhammad Ghori was defeated, and so
in the second battle, he avenged his defeat by bringing an
even more stronger army. Although he was successful this
time, and even killed Prithviraj Chauhan, but couldnt control
whole of the country. He founded the Delhi Sultanate, but
could control only the northern belt of Indian subcontinent.
His empire lasted from 1206 to 1526
Nader Shah afshar.jpg
Battle of Karnal 1739
fought between Mughal Empire and Afsharid Empire
of Persia. The Mughals were defeated in this battle
Kurukshetra War
the great Indian epic of Mahabharata, and the famous
battle fought between the Pandavas and Kauravas, at the
battlefield of Kurukshetra. The Pandavas, led by Lord Krishna
defeated the Kauravas, and ruled Hastinapur for the next 40 years





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